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遥感技术与应用  2020, Vol. 35 Issue (1): 255-266    DOI: 10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2020.1.0255
遥感应用     
新疆轮台奎玉克协海尔古城空间考古综合研究
于丽君1(),聂跃平1,杨林2,朱建峰1(),孙雨3,刘芳1,高华光2
1. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所遥感考古联合实验室,北京 100101
2. 中国国家博物馆综合考古部,北京 100006
3. 海南大学信息与通信工程学院,海南 海口 570228
A Comprehensive Spatial Archaeological Study of the Koyuk Shahri Ancient City in Xinjiang
Lijun Yu1(),Yueping Nie1,Lin Yang2,Jianfeng Zhu1(),Yu Sun3,Fang Liu1,Huaguang Gao2
1. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2. National Museum of China, Beijing 100006, China
3. Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
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摘要:

西域都护府是西汉政府在西域设置的管理机构,位于丝绸之路的战略要地,地处新疆轮台县境内,但城址具体的地理位置目前尚无定论。根据西部干旱区的环境特点,整合了遥感、地球物理、田野调查及空间分析方法,选取了可见光、雷达影像、历史航片,分析不同时相、不同尺度影像上的形状和光谱特征,提取了奎玉克协海尔古城的考古异常区域,发现了疑似壕沟、城墙和城门等遗迹;根据遥感异常区域采用地球物理和考古钻探进行了验证,确认考古目标,初步探明了遗址的内部结构。基于该遗址的地望、距西域各国城址的距离、城 址形制、规格、绝对年代测定等综合考证,提出了奎玉克协海尔古城就是西域都护府的治所所在地的假设。

关键词: 奎玉克协海尔古城遥感地球物理14C测年无损探测西域都护府    
Abstract:

The Protectorate of the Western Regions was the administrative agency established by the Western Han government in the Western Region. It was located in the area of strategic importance along the Silk Road in Luntai county of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. However, its accurate location is still inconclusive. From 2015 to 2017, according to the environmental characteristics of the western arid zone, we identified archaeological features such as moat, city wall and city gate based on the analysis of the shape and spectral characteristics in remotely sensed data (visible light images, radar images and historic aerial photo), using a method integrating remote sensing, geophysics, fieldwork and spatial analysis. These archaeological features were verified via geophysics and archaeological drilling, and the internal structure of the ancient city has been preliminarily explored. Finally, it was concluded that the ancient city of Koyuk Shahri was the Protectorate of the Western Regions, based on the comprehensive textual research of the site location, distances to cities in the Western Region according to the Book of Han, the shape and structure of the cities, the specifications, and the absolute dating of the sites.

Key words: Koyuk Shahri    Remote sensing    Geophysics    Radiocarbon dating    Non-destructive detection    Protectorate of the western regions
收稿日期: 2018-09-20 出版日期: 2020-04-01
ZTFLH:  TP79  
基金资助: “十二·五”国家科技支撑计划课题“我国典型遗址遥感与地球物理综合考古研究”(2015BAK01B01);“遥感技术在中华文明探源中的应用研究”(2013BAK08B01)
通讯作者: 朱建峰     E-mail: yulj@radi.ac.cn;zhjf@radi.ac.cn
作者简介: 于丽君(1982-),女,山东威海人,副研究员,主要从事遥感考古研究。yulj@radi.ac.cn
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引用本文:

于丽君,聂跃平,杨林,朱建峰,孙雨,刘芳,高华光. 新疆轮台奎玉克协海尔古城空间考古综合研究[J]. 遥感技术与应用, 2020, 35(1): 255-266.

Lijun Yu,Yueping Nie,Lin Yang,Jianfeng Zhu,Yu Sun,Fang Liu,Huaguang Gao. A Comprehensive Spatial Archaeological Study of the Koyuk Shahri Ancient City in Xinjiang. Remote Sensing Technology and Application, 2020, 35(1): 255-266.

链接本文:

http://www.rsta.ac.cn/CN/10.11873/j.issn.1004-0323.2020.1.0255        http://www.rsta.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V35/I1/255

数据 获取时间 分辨率/m
Corona数据 1964.6.23 2.7
无人机航拍数据 2016.7.20 0.03
QuickBird卫星数据 2008.3.31 0.4
Radarsat-2卫星数据 2017.10.29 0.4~2.4
表1  本研究使用的遥感数据
图1  遗址位置示意图 审图号:GS(2016)2556 左上角缩略图审图号:GS(2019)3333
图2  古城遗址遥感考古探测流程图
图3  多源遥感影像综合分析 注:图(e)为非监督分类、高通滤波(15×15)和标准差的假彩色合成影像能够有效突出考古疑似区域的纹理特征; 图(f)为方向滤波(9×9)、标准差增强影像、平均值的组合能够较好地突出城墙结构(HH极化Spotlight聚束模式)
图4  地球物理考古探测分析
图5  考古钻探验证结果
图6  乌垒城位置推测与遗址三维复原
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